Many substitutions change cooking times.

Generally, more moisture increases cooking time, while less moisture decreases it.

### Breads & Flours

## Bread crumbs

- The same volume of rolled oats
- The same volume of crushed bran cereal
- The same volume of cracker crumbs
- The same volume of chia seeds

## Cake flour

- The same volume of flour minus two tablespoons

## Cracker crumbs

- The same volume of dry breadcrumbs

## Flour

- The same volume of whole wheat flour
- 1 1/4 equivalent of oats ground in a blender
- The same volume and then a little more of quinoa ground in a blender
- A 1/4 volume of nut flour mixed with a 3/4 volume of wheat flour (for cookies, sweetbreads, and cakes)
- The same volume of nut flour mixed with a comparative pinch of a rising agent like yeast (for cookies, sweetbreads, and cakes)
- The same volume of puréed black beans (for brownies)
- 1/3 volume of coconut flour, an extra egg per ounce of coconut flour, and a dash of extra water (for pancakes, cookies, and cakes)
- Using more than 1/2 cup at a time could bring out the coconut flour’s bitterness.
- You may need to reduce the baking time.

## Self-rising flour

- The same volume of flour mixed with a teaspoon of baking powder, a pinch of salt and a half-pinch of baking soda

## Rice

- The same volume of quinoa

## Pasta

- Get a spiralizer to convert most veggies into a thin, strand-like base.

### Dairy and fats

## Butter

- The same volume of olive oil
- The same volume of coconut oil
- The same volume of mashed bananas (for brownies and cookies)
- The same volume of puréed avocados (for brownies and chocolate cookies)
- A half-volume of applesauce mixed with a half-volume of butter, but more if you can’t tell the taste difference (for any sweetbreads or muffins)
- 3/4 volume of prunes blended with 1/4 volume of boiling water (for dark baked goods like brownies, chocolate cookies, and cakes)
- 3/16 volume of flax meal mixed with a 1/16 volume of water and left to sit for 5–10 minutes (for anything with a strong nutty flavor)
- 1/5 volume of chia seeds mixed with a comparative volume of water and left to sit for about 15 minutes (for muffins, cakes, and breads)

## Buttermilk

- The same volume of yogurt
- The same volume of milk mixed with a spoonful of vinegar
- The same volume of milk mixed with a spoonful of lemon juice

## Cream or half & half

- The same volume of whole milk mixed with a spoonful of melted butter

## Heavy cream

- The same volume of evaporated skim milk

## Margarine

- 1/2 volume of applesauce
- 1/2 volume of puréed prunes

## Milk (whole)

- 1/2 volume of evaporated milk mixed with 1/2 volume of water
- The same volume of water mixed with 1/3 volume of nonfat dry milk powder

## Oil

- 1/2 volume of applesauce mixed with 1/2 volume of oil, but more if you can’t tell the taste difference (for any sweetbreads or muffins)
- The same volume of mashed bananas (for brownies and cookies)

## Shortening

- The same volume of butter
- The same volume of vegetable oil
- The same volume of coconut oil

## Sour cream

- The same volume of plain yogurt
- The same volume of Greek yogurt

### Condiments & Seasonings

## Cajun seasoning

- Mix 1/4 volume of cayenne pepper, 1/2 volume of dried thyme, 1/4 volume of dried basil, and a clove of minced garlic per tbsp

## Marinades (oil-based)

- Wine, as needed
- Balsamic vinaigrette, as needed
- Fruit juice, as needed
- Fat-free broth, as needed

## Mustard

- 1/6 volume of ground mustard
- 2/3 volume of vinegar

## Poultry seasoning

- 3/4 volume of rubbed sage
- 1/4 volume of dried thyme

### Chocolate & Sweets

## Chocolate, semi-sweet (1-ounce square)

- Three tablespoons of semi-sweet chocolate chips
- The same volume of unsweetened chocolate and 1 tablespoon of sugar

## Chocolate (1-ounce square)

- Three tablespoons of baking cocoa and a tablespoon of shortening or vegetable oil

## Chocolate chips

- The same volume of cacao nibs

## Frosting

- The same volume of marshmallow whip
- The same volume of meringue

## Honey

- 1 1/4 volume of sugar mixed into 1/4 volume of water

## Molasses

- The same volume of honey

## Oreo cookie (crushed)

- The same volume of crushed Graham crackers (for any pie)

## Rice Krispies

- The same volume of brown rice cereal mixed with 1/8 volume of flax meal (for Rice Krispies Treats or baked chicken coating)

## Sugar

- The same volume of packed brown sugar
- Twice the volume of sifted confectioners sugar
- The same volume of unsweetened applesauce
- Reduce the liquid in the recipe by 1/4 volume per cup of applesauce

- 1/20 volume of pure vanilla extract (for cookies, cakes, sweetbreads, and brownies)

### Other substitutions

## Baking powder

- 1/2 volume of cream of tartar mixed with 1/4 volume of baking soda and 1/4 volume of cornstarch

## Cornstarch

- Twice the volume of flour (as a thickening agent)

## Corn syrup, dark

- 3/4 volume of light corn syrup mixed with 1/4 volume of molasses

## Eggs (1 egg)

- 1/4 cup of egg substitute
- Two egg whites
- Two egg yolks
- 1/2 banana
- 1/4 cup of mashed potatoes
- 1/4 cup of canned pumpkin
- 1/4 cup of canned squash
- 1/4 cup of puréed prunes
- Two tablespoons of potato starch
- 3 tablespoons of boiled chickpea gel (leftover water after boiling)
- A tablespoon of chia seeds mixed into 1 cup of water and left to sit for about 15 minutes
- A tablespoon of flax meal mixed into three tablespoons of water and left to sit for 5–10 minutes (for muffins, cakes, and cookies)

## Lemon juice

- 1/4 volume of apple cider vinegar

## Lemon peel (1 teaspoon)

- 1/2 lemon’s extract

## Peanut butter

- The same volume of almond butter

## Soups (as a thickening agent)

- Mashed potato flakes, as needed
- Potatoes, as needed
- Silken tofu, as needed

## Tomato sauce

- 3/8 volume of tomato paste mixed into 1/2 volume of water